PediatricsThe field of medicine that deals with the care and treatment of infants and children.ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZSkip List ContentAAbdominal Migraine: Symptoms, Diagnosis & TreatmentAbdominal migraine is a difficult-to-diagnose condition characterized by stomach pain, nausea, and vomiting. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Anger, Irritability and Aggression in KidsAngry feelings often bubble into outbursts for children and teens. Parents may wonder whether their child's behavior is normal; Yale Medicine can help.Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)ADHD is a condition marked by problems with attention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid TumorsA rare, fast-growing type of cancer that begins in the brain and/or spinal cord.Autism: The Transition to AdulthoodAutism is a developmental disorder that impairs interaction and communication. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Avoiding and Refusing to Go to SchoolFor many reasons, including anxiety, depression, social issues and learning problems, an estimated 10-15% of kids are chronically absent from school.BBirth DefectsBirth defects are health problems that are present at birth. They can range from mild to severe, and some babies have more than one.Blood Transfusions for ChildrenA blood transfusion is any procedure used to replace blood, or any blood component, that has been lost. Learn more about this procedure.CCeliac Disease (in Children)Celiac disease is a digestive disorder in which the small intestine becomes inflamed and damaged by gluten, a protein found in many grains.Child DevelopmentChild development is a series of skills and stages that occur in a child between birth and adulthood.Clinical TrialsNew drugs and medical treatments need to go through a series tests called clinical trials. This is how new and better treatments are made possible.Congenital Deformities of the Outer EarA congenital deformity of the outer ear is a visible malformation of the ear since birth.Congenital Hand ConditionsA congenital hand disorder (a difference in fingers or hands) can be treated with physical therapy, prosthetic devices, splints and/or corrective surgery.Cystic Fibrosis in ChildrenCystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder affecting mucous movement in the respiratory, digestive and reproductive systems. Learn about symptoms and treatment.DDepression in Children and TeensChildhood depression is indicated by persistent feelings of sadness that interfere with the ability to function in daily life. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Developmental DelayDevelopmental delay occurs when a child’s progression through predictable developmental phases slows, stops, or reverses. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Diabetes in ChildrenType 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease in which the immune system destroys insulin-producing cells. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Diagnosing AutismAutism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that interferes with the ability to learn, communicate, and interact. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Diagnosing Pediatric SarcomasPediatric sarcomas are a rare type of childhood cancer that requires a team of specialized experts for treatment. Learn how this condition is diagnosed.EEpilepsy in Children and TeensEpilepsy is a recurrent seizure disorder that results from abnormal electric brain activity. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Eye Care for KidsEye examinations are important for detecting conditions early in childhood.FFevers in Infants Under 3 MonthsBecause infants are vulnerable to infection with their still-developing immune systems, fevers during the first months of life are taken seriously.GGrowth Plate InjuriesGrowth plate injuries are injuries to new bone tissue at the ends of a child's bones that can affect how they grow. Learn about symptoms and treatment.HHelping Children Cope with DivorceThe breakup of parents doesn’t have to be catastrophic for children. While divorce is a loss, it can bring positive changes to a family when handled well.Hostile, Disobedient and Defiant Behavior in ChildrenOppositional defiance disorder is a disorder marked by frequent angry outbursts and aggressive behaviors that interfere with life. Learn about symptoms and treatment.HydrocephalusHydrocephalus is a condition that causes excess fluid to build up in and around the brain. Learn about symptoms and treatment.IInfantile HemangiomaInfantile hemangioma, a type of red birthmark formed of extra blood vessels in the skin, is common and found in five to 10 percent of babies.JJuvenile Idiopathic ArthritisJuvenile idiopathic arthritis is a chronic, inflammatory disease in children that causes swelling, pain, and stiffness in joints. Learn about symptoms and treatment.LLead Poisoning (in Children)Exposure to lead can harm young children and babies, even before birthLearning DisordersLearning disorders are conditions that affect the way a child processes information. Learn about symptoms and treatment.Leukemia in ChildrenLeukemia is a cancer that affects blood-forming tissues, weakening the body's ability to fight infection. Learn about symptoms and treatment.MMental Health Medications for ChildrenChildren may benefit from mental health medications, which may be helpful in treating autism, obsessive compulsive disorder or depression. Learn more about these treatments.Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C)MIS-C is an inflammatory syndrome that affects children and is associated with COVID-19.OObsessive-Compulsive Disorder in ChildrenA child or teen with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has intrusive, persistent thoughts and compulsions that make life hard at home and in school.PParental Depression: How it Affects a ChildOne in five children in the U.S. lives with a parent who has severe depression; research identifies this as a major risk factor for difficulties in a child’s life.Pediatric AsthmaAsthma—a chronic inflammation of the airways that causes trouble breathing—affects 5 to 10 percent of children in the United States.Pediatric Brain and Spinal Cord TumorsMalignant pediatric brain and spinal cord tumors, including low-grade gliomas and medulloblastomas, are the second most common childhood cancer.Pediatric CancerPediatric cancers although common are highly treatable. Radiation therapy can be used safely and effectively to treat a variety of cancers that affect children.Pediatric Cancer ImmunotherapyImmune therapy uses the body’s own immune system to attack cancer cells. Pediatric cancer immunotherapy has become an important treatment for many childhood cancers.Pediatric Cancer SurgerySurvival rates for children with cancer have risen dramatically, a result of major advances in cancer treatments, including pediatric cancer surgery.Pediatric ChemotherapyMore than 80 percent of children diagnosed with cancer are cured, and chemotherapy is an effective treatment for childhood cancer.Pediatric Congenital Heart SurgeryYale Medicine surgeons are widely recognized for innovation and expertise in the surgical treatment of pediatric congenital heart defects.Pediatric ConstipationConstipation is characterized by either infrequent bowel movements or the passage of dry, hard stools.Pediatric Crohn's DiseaseCrohn’s disease is a lifelong condition that poses unique challenges for children, but with current medical therapies, children can lead healthy, productive lives.Pediatric Incontinence (Enuresis)Bedwetting and daytime incontinence can run in families or be a result of certain medical or psychological conditions. Proper diagnosis and treatment is needed.Pediatric Kidney TransplantKidney failure in children can be caused by birth defects and genetic conditions; a kidney transplant can be safe and effective treatment.Pediatric Liver TransplantsPediatric liver transplants at Yale Medicine are extremely safe and successful, and can cure many cases of childhood liver failure.Pediatric Movement DisordersPediatric movement disorders are neurological conditions that affect the speed, fluency, quality and ease with which a child moves.Pediatric Neurogenic BladderChildren with medical conditions such as spina bifida, stroke, multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injury may have neurogenic bladders and need specialized care.Pediatric Obstructive Sleep ApneaPediatric obstructive sleep apnea is a condition in which the muscles at the back of the throat intermittently relax, partially or completely blocking the airway.Pediatric Reflux DiseasePediatric gastroesophageal reflux is common; it becomes a problem when the esophagus is irritated and causes pain or a burning sensation.Pediatric Respiratory FailurePediatric acute respiratory failure is an emergency. It can be serious, even life-threatening, but most children recover without chronic illness.Pediatric Sepsis: Symptoms, Diagnosis & TreatmentThe immune system’s response to an infection can sometimes spin out of control, leading to a life-threatening condition called sepsis. Babies, children, and adolescents can develop sepsis.Pediatric Skull and Spine DeformitiesSome children are born with or develop irregularities of the skull and/or spine (called craniosynostosis). Some benefit from surgical correction procedures.Pediatric Sleep StudyIf your child struggles with sleep, snores, is hyperactive or extremely drowsy during the day, he or she might need an overnight sleep study.Pediatric TonsillectomyIf your tonsils are enlarged or chronically infected, this can affect breathing and/or swallowing and may require removal (tonsillectomy).Pediatric TonsillitisTonsillitis is an infection of the tonsils that causes them to swell, making it hard to swallow and leaving the lymph nodes in the neck sore.Pediatric Ulcerative ColitisUlcerative colitis causes swelling and sores in the colon, but with proper treatment, however, children can live happy, healthy lives.Pediatric UrologyPediatric urology helps children by performing routine procedures like circumcisions and reconstructive surgeries for sexual development disorders.Pivotal Response TreatmentFor children with autism, anger and other challenges, pivotal response treatment (PRT) builds on principles of earlier behavior modification methods.Premature BirthBabies born before the beginning of the 37th week of pregnancy are considered premature.Preventing Infections in the NICUInfections and antimicrobial resistance pose a profound threat in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) so special protective measures are emphasized.Psychological Assessment of ChildrenPsychological assessments of children examine learning, social, behavioral and personality development to plan for =mental health and educational needs.SShort Stature (Growth Disorders) in ChildrenSome children who aren't growing as expected are diagnosed with short stature. Here's what parents need to know about this condition.Surgery for Cleft Lip and PalateCleft lip and cleft palate occur when tissues in the lips and/or the roof of the mouth fail to properly join during fetal development.TTwin-to-Twin Transfusion SyndromeTwin-to-twin transfusion syndrome is a rare, in utero condition that occurs only in monochorionic twins (identical twins who share the same placenta).UUrinary Tract Infection (UTI) in ChildrenA condition that causes the urinary tract (bladder, urethra, ureters, and/or kidneys) to become irritated and inflamed.